Efficient Sparse NMF for fMRI data analysis
Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has become a ubiquitous tool for data analysis. An important variant is the sparse NMF problem which arises when we explicitly require the learnt features to be sparse. A natural measure of sparsity is the L0 norm, however its optimization is NP-hard. Mixed norms, such as L1/L2 measure, have been shown to model sparsity robustly, based on intuitive attributes that such measures need to satisfy. This is in contrast to computationally cheaper alternatives such as the plain L1 norm. However, present algorithms designed for optimizing the mixed norm L1/L2 are slow and other formulations for sparse NMF have been proposed such as those based on L1 and L0 norms. Our proposed algorithm allows us to solve the mixed norm sparsity constraints while not sacri ficing computation time. We present experimental evidence on real-world datasets that shows our new algorithm performs an order of magnitude faster compared to the current state-of-the-art solvers optimizing the mixed norm and is suitable for large-scale datasets . Also, recently, its computational efficiency has been exploited for evaluating the sparse NMF model for fMRI analysis . And the authors show that the sparse NMF model is competitive with other state-of-the-art matrix factorization methods such as ICA, sparse PCA and even restricted Boltzmann machines.