Wednesday, September 19, 2012

Richard Naud: Aug. 14

Roy Fox: July 31st

"Residual Component Analysis: Generalising PCA for more flexible inference in linear-Gaussian models"

Probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) seeks a low dimensional representation of a data set in the presence of independent spherical Gaussian noise, Σ = σ^2I. The maximum likelihood solution for the model is an eigenvalue problem on the sample covariance matrix. In this paper we consider the situation where the data variance is already partially explained by other factors, e.g. conditional dependencies between the covariates, or temporal correlations leaving some residual variance. We decompose the residual variance into its components through a generalised eigenvalue problem, which we call residual component analysis (RCA). We explore a range of new algorithms that arise from the framework, including one that factorises the covariance of a Gaussian density into a low-rank and a sparse-inverse component. We illustrate the ideas on the recovery of a protein-signaling network, a gene expression time-series data set and the recovery of the human skeleton from motion capture 3-D cloud data.

Eftychios P.: July 24th

Robust 1-bit compressed sensing and sparse logistic regression: A convex programming approach

This paper develops theoretical results regarding noisy 1-bit compressed sensing and sparse binomial regression. We show that a single convex program gives an accurate estimate of the signal, or coefficient vector, for both of these models. We demonstrate that an s-sparse signal in R^n can be accurately estimated from m = O(slog(n/s)) single-bit measurements using a simple convex program. This remains true even if each measurement bit is flipped with probability nearly 1/2. Worst-case (adversarial) noise can also be accounted for, and uniform results that hold for all sparse inputs are derived as well. In the terminology of sparse logistic regression, we show that O(slog(n/s)) Bernoulli trials are sufficient to estimate a coefficient vector in R^n which is approximately s-sparse. Moreover, the same convex program works for virtually all generalized linear models, in which the link function may be unknown. To our knowledge, these are the first results that tie together the theory of sparse logistic regression to 1-bit compressed sensing. Our results apply to general signal structures aside from sparsity; one only needs to know the size of the set K where signals reside. The size is given by the mean width of K, a computable quantity whose square serves as a robust extension of the dimension.